Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve. It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of the eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve. Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness for people over 60 years old. Blindness from Glaucoma can often be prevented with early detection and treatment.

There are two major types of glaucoma:
  • Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma                                

This is the most common type of glaucoma. It happens gradually, where the eye does not drain fluid as well as it should (like a clogged drain). As a result, eye pressure builds and starts to damage the optic nerve. This type of glaucoma is painless and causes no vision changes at first.

Some people can have optic nerves that are sensitive to normal eye pressure. This means their risk of getting glaucoma is higher than normal. Regular eye exams are important to find early signs of damage to their optic nerve.

  • Angle Closure Glaucoma (also called “closed-angle glaucoma” or “narrow-angle glaucoma”)

This type happens when someone’s iris is very close to the drainage angle in their eye. The iris can end up blocking the drainage angle. You can think of it like a piece of paper sliding over a sink drain. When the drainage angle gets completely blocked, eye pressure rises very quickly. This is called an acute attack. It is a true eye emergency, and you should call your ophthalmologist right away or you might go blind.

Glaucoma Specialist

Amenze Osa Oriaifo, M.D.
  • 512-353-1300

Glaucoma Video

What Causes Glaucoma?

Your eye constantly makes aqueous humor. As new aqueous flows into your eye, the same amount should drain out. The fluid drains out through an area called the drainage angle. This process keeps pressure in the eye (called intraocular pressure or IOP) stable. But if the drainage angle is not working properly, fluid builds up. Pressure inside the eye rises, damaging the optic nerve.

The optic nerve is made of more than a million tiny nerve fibers. It is like an electric cable made up of many small wires. As these nerve fibers die, you will develop blind spots in your vision. You may not notice these blind spots until most of your optic nerve fibers have died. If all of the fibers die, you will become blind.

Some people have a higher than normal risk of getting glaucoma. This includes people who:

  • Are over age 40
  • Have family members with glaucoma
  • Are of African or Hispanic heritage
  • Have high eye pressure
  • Are farsighted or nearsighted
  • Have had an eye injury
  • Have corneas that are thin in the center
  • Have thinning of the optic nerve
  • Have diabetes, migraines, poor blood circulation or other health problems affecting the whole body


While there is no cure for glaucoma, treatment is aimed at lowering intraocular pressure to prevent vision loss. Oftentimes, medicated eye drops are enough to lower the eye pressure nominally. In some cases laser procedures or more complex surgeries are necessary. It is important to understand that Glaucoma damage is permanent—it cannot be reversed. Our treatment plans are aimed at preventing future optic nerve damage or vision loss. 

Kahook Dual Blade® Goniotomy

This single use, dual ophthalmic blade is used to remove diseased trabecular meshwork and provide open access to collector channels, when necessary. This procedure can be done in combination with cataract surgery, or as a stand alone procedure. As with any glaucoma procedure, the goal is to reduce the pressure inside the eye. 

iSTENT Inject 

The iStent inject® is two tiny titanium implants that can be inserted during cataract surgery to help restore the natural flow of intraocular fluid. The iStent inject® is the next generation of the first FDA approved Micro-Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS) device.


Treating glaucoma successfully is a team effort between you and your doctor. Your ophthalmologist will prescribe your glaucoma treatment. It is up to you to follow your doctor’s instructions and use your eye drops.

Once you are taking medications for glaucoma, your ophthalmologist will want to see you regularly. You can expect to visit your ophthalmologist about every 3–6 months. However, this can vary depending on your treatment needs.

If you have any questions about your eyes or your treatment, talk to your ophthalmologist.